Apiospora Sacc.; anamorph Arthrinium Kunze
Most species are saprobes, and are recorded from many vegetable sources, especially from grasses. Apiospora montagnei Sacc. (syn. Papularia arundinis (Corda) Fr.) has been isolated from flour, stored grain and molasses. See Kirk (1991a) for a description. Arthrinium phaeospermum (Corda) M.B. Ellis (no teleomorph is known) has caused the spoilage of pasteurized apple juice, and has also been found in stored flour, grain and nuts. See Pitt & Hocking (1985a) and Kirk (1991b) for references.
Khuskia oryzae H.J. Hudson; anamorph Nigrospora oryzae (Berk. & Br.) Fetch.
This fungus is known primarily as a common parasite of a range of crops (especially cereals and bananas) in the tropics, but it also causes storage rots (Pitt & Hocking, 1985a). The fungus has also been reported as producing metabolites belonging to the medically important group griseofulvins (Turner, 1975). The related species Nigrospora sphaerica (without a known teleomorph) is found in similar situations, and has been recorded from stored corn, wheat, pecans, peanuts and dried meat (Pitt & Hocking, 1985a; Kirk, 1991d).
Pestalosphaeria Barr; anamorph Pestalotiopsis Steyaert
Ascomata perithecia, immersed in host tissues, thin-walled. Paraphyses present. Asci ± cylindrical, fairly thin-walled, apparently with a single wall layer, with an inconspicuous apical ring staining blue in iodine. Ascospores pale brown, 2-septate, the middle cell more strongly pigmented, ornamented with irregular longitudinal ridges.
Conidiomata acervular, the wall composed of thin-walled angular cells. Conidiogenous cells ± cylindrical, with a single conidiogenous locus which proliferates to a small degree between the successive production of conidia. Conidia 4-septate, the septa thin, the middle cells more strongly pigmented than the end ones, with a single basal and several apical filiform, cellular, appendages.
Pestalosphaeria is dubiously distinct from Lepteutypa Petrak, and indeed was placed into synonymy with that genus by von Arx (1981b). Pestalosphaeria is more commonly encountered in an anamorphic state, commonly referable to Pestalotiopsis Steyaert. That form-genus is the most prominent member of an assemblage of segregates separated from Pestalotia de Not. by Steyaert (1949); others are Monochaetia (Sacc.) Allesch. and Truncatella Steyaert. Although some subsequent workers, notably Cuba (1961), have questioned the validity of Steyaert’s work, it is now generally accepted. See Sutton (1969, 1980) for further information.
These fungi are frequently encountered on plant debris, and a number are important plant pathogens. They are also occasionally isolated from soil, and cause damage to cotton and jute fabrics. Species of the closely related genus Broomella Sacc. are strongly cellulolytic, causing soft rots in timber, and produce antifungal compounds (Domsch et al., 1980).