Species of Trichoderma are very common in soil and cellulolytic materials including decaying wood, wood products, textiles, stored cereals and plant foodstuffs. Many species are strongly cellulolytic (i.e., they are capable of degrading cellulose since they produce large quantities of the enzyme cellulase). For this reason, they are important spoilage organisms and also cause post-harvest rots of various fruits and vegetables. They are also important producers of antibiotics and they have been researched extensively for biological control, especially of wood-rotting fungi.
In indoor environment, Trichoderma spp are commonly found on gypsum board and water saturated wood, wallpaper, carpet and mattress dust, paint, and air-conditioning filters. Human infection by species of Trichoderma is limited to individuals with severely weakened immune system. However, some species such as Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma viride are producers of potent mycotoxins.
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